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定语从句的概念及用法是什么

时间:2018-01-06 中考备考 我要投稿

  关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。下面是满分网小编给大家整理的定语从句的概念及用法简介,希望能帮到大家!

  定语从句的概念

  定语从句是由关系代词和关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个成分,定语从句分为限定性和非限定性从句两种。状语从句分为时间状语从句,结果状语从句,让步状语从句,原因状语从句,条件状语从句以及行为方式状语从句。名词从句包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句及there be句型。

  定语从句用法

  在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,引导定语从句的有关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that等和关系副词where,when,why等,关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。

  1.由who引导的定语从句中,who用作主语,如:This is the boy who often helps me.

  2.由whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.

  3.由whose引导的定语从句中,whose用作定语,如:Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?

  4.由which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如:

  The room in which there is a machine is a work shop.

  The river which is in front of my house is very clean.

  This is the pen which you want.

  注意:

  (1)whom,which用作介词宾语时,介词可放在whom、which之前,也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如:He is the very person whom we must take good care of.

  (2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that,如:I have lost

  my bag,which I like very much.

  (3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。

  5.由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:

  The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.?

  注意在下面几种情况下必须用that引导定语从句。

  (1)先行词是不定代词all,few,little,much,something,nothing,anything等,如:

  All that we have to do is to practise English.

  (2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,如

  The first letter that I got from him will be kept.

  (3)先行词被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some等修饰,如

  I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.

  (4)先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时如

  He is the only person that I want to talk with.

  (5)先行词既有人又有物时,如:

  They talked about persons and things that they met.

  (6)当句中已有who时,为避免重复,如:Who is the man that is giving us the

  class?

  6.由when,where,why引导的定语从句,如:

  I don't know the reason why he was late.

  This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.

  I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.

  注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。This is the house Which/that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)

  7.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

  (1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词有who,whom,whose,which,of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略。

  (2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有这种从句,不影响主句意思的完整,一般用逗号把主句和从句分开,关系代词用which,不用that;指人时可用who,如:I have two brothers,who are both students.

  8.如何简化定语从句

  (1).定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。如:

  My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here.

  →My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。

  This is a book that is worth reading.

  →This is a book worth reading.这是一本值得看的书。

  (2)定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。

  The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  →The man standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。

  I saw the house that was burning at that time.→I saw the burning house at that time.

  当时我看到那房子在燃烧。

  (3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。

  I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.→I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou.我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。

  She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.→She is the girl praised at the school meeting.她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。

  (4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。

  He is always the first person that comes to school.→He is always the first person to come to school.他总是第一个到校。

  The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.→The report to be given tomorrow is important to us.明天要作的报告对我们很重要。

  (5)定语从句简化为what从句。

  I couldn't remember the words that he said.→I couldn't remember what he said.

  我记不得他说的话。

  定语从句结构

  定语从句公式

  定语从句=先行词+关系词+从句

  先行词

  指被定语从句修饰的名词、代词或句子。

  一般先行词出现在定语从句的前面。

  关系词

  关系词常有3个作用:

  ①连接作用,连接主句和定语从句。

  ②指代先行词。

  ③在定语从句中担当成分。

  注:关系代词有主语、宾语、定语之分。一般who做主语或其宾格形式的whom做宾语(whom作宾语时可省略),whose作为定语(whose不可省略)。关系代词在从句中作主语,宾语,定语等,关系副词在从句中作地点状语(where),时间状语(when),原因状语(why)。

  定语

  定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词,是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语(动词不定式短语、动名词表示的)汉语中常用“……的”表示。主要由形容词担任,此外,名词、代词、数词、分词、副词、不定式以及介词短语也可以来担任,也可以由一个句子来担任。单词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,作前置定语。短语、从句作定语时则放在所修饰的词之后,作后置定语。

  被定语从句修饰的名词、代词称为先行词。如“the girl”,“the book”

  如:She is the girl who likes singing. 她就是那个喜欢唱歌的女孩。

  这就是一个定语从句。

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